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You can begin through the Intro and Description for just a glimpse regarding the subject. And when you require a lot more chronological arrangement, you can look at via the Glossary page.
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Paul and Arvind Bagga have been trusted and popular authors in the field of medical academics.
Six editions of their book, Ghai Essential Pediatrics, have served as a handy guide and tool for students of undergraduate and postgraduate medical studies. The seventh edition specifically caters to the students of nursing and practicing pediatricians.
The book focuses on existing issues such as infant health, infant health education and training at a time when such issues have secured utmost attention on a national level. The focus has also shifted from nutrition and infectious diseases to genetics, intensive care and chronic diseases.
Compared to the previous edition, this edition has added facts on growth and development in light of the WHO norms. A fresh and new perspective on neonatology and nutritional issues has been shared with particular importance being given to practical and clinical treatment.
With more and more kinds of fevers and diseases doing the rounds, the chapter on infectious diseases has been dealt with afresh. In addition, hematology, endocrine, and renal conditions have also been written about with recent updates on various cases. The seventh edition brings a few chapters anew.
OP Ghai Essential of Pediatrics Textbook PDF Download [Direct Link]
Their prime effect is on cell division, though they also influence other aspects of tissue growth. These factors can be both growth promoting or inhibitory. As in most species, fetal weight directly correlates with placental weight at term. Fetal growth is highly dependent on the structural and functional integrity of the placenta. With advancing gestation, the weight of the placenta increases to cater to the increased needs of the baby. There are important functional and structural changes in the placenta that make this adaptation more efficient.
The total villous surface area increases, the diffusion distance decreases, the fetal capillaries dilate and the resistance in fetoplacental vasculature falls.
This positive remodeling facilitates nutrient transport across the placenta. Maternal factors.
OP Ghai Essential of Pediatrics Textbook PDF Download [Direct Link]
The mother's own fetal and childhood growth and her nutrient intake and body composition at the time of conception and during pregnancy, play an important role in determining fetal size.
Teenage or advanced age, recent pregnancy, high parity and anemia negatively influence fetal size and health. Maternal intake of tobacco smoked or chewed and drug or alcohol abuse also retard fetal growth.
Obstetric complications such as pregnancy induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia and multiple pregnancies produce fetal growth restriction. Postnatal Period The growth of the child during postnatal life is determined by genetic potential as well as internal and external influences. Both chromosomal disorders and mutations in specific genes can affect growth. Chromosomal defects like Turner syndrome and Down syndrome manifest as growth retardation.
[pdf] OP Ghai Essentials of Pediatrics book download 8th edition
Mutation of single genes may result in inherited retardation of growth, e. Prader-Willi syndrome and Noonan syndrome.
While most disorders lead to short stature, some genetic defects can also result in tall stature, e. Klinefelter syndrome and Sotos syndrome.
IUGR resulting in low birthweight LBW constitutes an important risk factor for postnatal malnutrition and poor growth. LBW increases the odds of underweight, stunting and wasting in the first 5 yr of life by 3 to 5 times.
It was recently reported that a third and a fifth of infants have wasting and stunting, respectively, even at birth Fig. During early infancy, exclusive breastfeeding provides adequate nutrition, prevents infections and protects the infants from further undernourishment.
However, at months, the common practice of supplementing the infants with animal milk increases morbidity due to infections leading to underweight and stunting.
Subsequently, faulty complementary feeding practices starting too late, using too little and very less calorie dense foods along with poor hygiene lead to a further rise in rates of underweight and stunting. Hormonal influence. Normal development cannot proceed without the right milieu of hormones in the body throughout childhood and adolescence.An annual anal Strategies include deployment of more than , ASHAs; an increase in ANMs, nurses and doctors; setting up of village health and sanitation; strengthened primary health care infrastructure; strengthened program management capacity, establishment of patient welfare committees at facilities and creation of emergency transport networks.
The body cells remain in a state of dynamic equilibrium; hence aging cells are continuously replaced by new cells. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.
NathanaelHamlin Follow. Maternal intake of tobacco smoked or chewed and drug or alcohol abuse also retard fetal growth.